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The disinfection of potable water and wastewater provides a degree of protection from contact with pathogenic organisms including those causing cholera, polio, typhoid, hepatitis and a number of other bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases. Disinfection is a process where a significant percentage of pathogenic organisms are killed or controlled. As an individual pathogenic organism can be difficult to detect in a large volume of water or wastewater, disinfection efficacy is most often measured using [indicator organisms" that coexist in high quantities where pathogens are present. The most common indicator organism used in the evaluation of drinking water is Total Coliform (TC), unless there is a reason to focus on a specific pathogen. The most common indicator organism for wastewater evaluation is fecal coliform but there has been discussion regarding the use of Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Total Coliform. As domestic wastewater contains approximately 1,000 times more indicator organisms than typical surface water, understanding wastewater disinfection will make it easier to understand water disinfection.
Water Disinfection Disinfection is usually the final stage in the water treatment process in order to limit the effects of organic material, suspended solids and other contaminants. Like the disinfection of wastewater, the primary methods used for the disinfection of water in very small (25-500 people) and small (501-3,300 people) treatment systems are ozone, ultraviolet irradiation (UV) and chlorine. There are numerous alternative disinfection processes that have been less widely used in small and very small water treatment systems, including chlorine dioxide, potassium permanganate, chloramines and peroxone (ozone/hydrogen peroxide).